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The culture of Sindh ( سنڌي سڀيتا ) has its roots in the Indus Valley Civilization. Sindh has been shaped by the geography of the largely desert region, the natural resources it had available and the continuous foreign influences. The Indus or SindRiver that passes through the land, and the Arabian Sea (that defines its borders) also supported the sea-faring traditions among the local people. The local climate also reflects why the Sindhis have the language, folklore, traditions, customs and lifestyle that are so different from the neighbouring regions.

Saturday, September 12, 2009


Sindh is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. Different cultural and ethnic groups also reside in Sindh including Urdu speaking people who migrated from India at the time of independence and partition as well as the people migrated from other provinces after independence. Neighbouring regions are Balochistan to the west and north, Punjab in the north, Rajasthan and Gujarat (India) to the east, and the Arabian Sea to the south. The main languages are Sindhi and Urdu. Known by various names in the past, the name Sindh comes from the Indo-Aryans whose legends claimed that the Indus River flowed from the mouth of a lion or Sinh-ka-bab. In Sanskrit, the province was dubbed Sindhu meaning “ocean”. The Assyrians (as early as the seventh century BCE) knew the region as Sinda, the Persians Abisind, the Greeks Sinthus, the Romans Sindus, the Chinese Sintow, while the Arabs dubbed it Sind. It is mentioned to be a part of Abhirrdesh (Abhira Kingdom) in Srimad Bhagavatam [2]. Sindh was the first place where Islam spread in South Asia. As a result, it is often referred to as “Bab-al-Islam” (Gate of Islam).


A subtropical region, Sindh is hot in the summer and cold in winter. Temperatures frequently rise above 46 °C (115 °F) between May and August, and the minimum average temperature of 2 °C (36 °F) occurs during December and January. The annual rainfall averages about seven inches, falling mainly during July and August. The Southwest Monsoon wind begins to blow in mid-February and continues until the end of September, whereas the cool northerly wind blows during the winter months from October to January.
Sindh lies between the two monsoons - the southwest monsoon from the Indian Ocean and the northeast or retreating monsoon, deflected towards it by Himalayan mountains — and escapes the influence of both. The average rainfall in Sindh is only 15 to 18 cm per year, but the loss during the two seasons is compensated by the Indus, in the form of inundation, caused twice a year by the spring and summer melting of Himalayan snow and by rainfall in the monsoon season. These natural patterns have changed somewhat with the construction of dams and barrages on the Indus.
Climatically, Sindh is divided in three sections - Siro (upper section centered on Jacobabad), Wicholo (middle section centered on Hyderabad), and Lar (lower section centered on Karachi). In upper Sindh[3], the thermal equator passes through Sindh. The highest temperature ever recorded was 53 °C (127 °F in 1919. The air is generally very dry. In winter frost is common.
In central Sindh, average monsoon wind speed is 18 km/hour in June. The temperature is lower than upper Sindh but higher than lower Sindh. Dry hot days and cool nights are summer characteristics. Maximum temperature reaches 43-44° C (110-112° F). Lower Sindh has a damper and humid maritime climate affected by the south-western winds in summer and north-eastern winds in winter and with lower rainfall than central Sindh. The maximum temperature reaches about 35-38° C (95-100° F). In the Kirthar range at 1,800 m7 and higher on the Gorakhnath and other peaks in Dadu District, temperatures near freezing have been recorded and brief snow fall is received in winters.

Friday, September 11, 2009

Sindhi Culture

Sindh has very glorious past. The richness of its history and culture has always attracted scholars of the country and abroad for the study of all aspects of Sindhi life and its ethos.Historically the roots of Sindhi culture and civilization go back to a hoary past. Archaeological researches during 19th and 20th centuries A.D., showed the roots of social life, religion and culture of the people of the Sindh- their agricultural practices, traditional arts and crafts, customs and tradition etc. going back to a ripe and mature Indus valley civilization of the third millennium B.C. Recent researches have traced the richness of the Indus valley civilization, to even earlier ancestry.Sindhi culture can truly lay claim to being one of the oldest known to man, surpassing certain shades and colors even those of Egypt, Mesopotamia and china.To see the richness of the Sindhi culture, one only has to visit Sindh to be aware of the diversity and beauty of her human world, their language, literature, arts and crafts, music and social customs & traditions etc.Tangibly, in brick and stone, it is , therefore, for all the visitors to see the Indus Valley civilization represented by the ancient sites of Mahrgharh, Amri, Kotdijji, Mohen-jo-Daro and Harappa, dating back from seventh to the fourth millennium B.C.People of Sindh have possessed and retained most of the peculiarities and characteristics of their ancestors, in spite of the fact that Sindhi culture has been influenced by the cultures of invaders such as Aryans, Iranians, Greeks, Scythians, Parthians Arabs and the western people.Thus the study of Sindh, its people and their culture, is a very interesting subject, and it invites the attention of scholars, particularly that of the historians, anthropologists & linguists.This is a region of diverse cultural influences. Throughout the centuries, indeed, through out the millennium, as these influences arrived in Sindh, they were incorporated into the rich traditions, which are defined as "Sindhi Culture". Thus the people and culture of Sindh can be thought of as a distinct entity in which almost every aspect eludes simple definition.The Sindhi is by nature, quiet and inoffensive. He is religious minded, humanitarian, hospitable, accommodating, and prefers human values. His attitude to life is determined by geographical, economic and moral set-up, making him unassertive. In the opinion of professor pithawalla, "A Sindhi is a philosophic, strong, forbearing, tolerant, patriotic and peace-loving individual. "like the great river-Sindhu-which is Sindh's life-sprit, the Sindhi farmer has learnt to receive and to give gifts."

The Land and Economy:

In general Sindh corresponds to the lower Indus River valley, stretching from north to south in the form of the letter 'S', physiographical, Sindh can be divided into the western highlands of the Khirthar Range and the Kohistan area, rising to more than 6000 feet (1,830 meters); the central valley, with eastern and western valley regions; and western valley regions; and the delta region; and the Thar desert in the east. The climate is of the subtropical desert type, with scanty rainfall averaging 5 inches (125 mm) yearly.As in the rest of Pakistan, the economy is predominantly agricultural and depends almost entirely on irrigation. The principal source of water is the Indus River, on the which there are three irrigation dams ('Barrages') in Sindh: the Guddu, on the Punjab border; the Lloyed (Sukkur), and the Kotri, farthest south. The Sukkur Barrage controls a canal system whose total length including subsidiary water courses, extends 50,000 miles (80,000 km), or twice the length of the earth's circumference. Sindh's principal crops are wheat, rice, cotton, oilseeds, sugarcane, vegetables and fruits. Sheep, cattle, camels, and poultry are raised, and there is fishing industry. Manufacturing industries are concentrated in Karachi, Hyderabad, nooriabad and Kotri. They produce textiles, cement, cardboard, chemicals, electric power and supplies, rail-road equipment, machinery and other metal products Karachi, Pakistan's chief port, has an oil refinery and also is the center of printing and publishing.The artistic and cultural heritage of Sindh is reflected in its superb, examples lacquer ware, mirror embroidery, textile and exquisitely painted tile work.

Thursday, September 10, 2009

Some sindh colours


The Sindhis are peaceful, hardworking, hospitable, open-minded community. They have build up the image of Indians abroad as a prosperous and dependable people. They are free from inhibitions of caste and creed. In Sindhi Temples you will find the images of Sri Rama and Sri Krishna placed, side by side, with those of Shiva and Durga and Guru Nanak. The Sindhis are cosmopolitan in their outlook. Someone said that today in India it is difficult to meet an Indian: every one belongs to one province or the other. The Sindhis are the only Indians in India. The Sindhis are an enterprising and industrious people - full of the spirit of faith and courage. They know the subtle psychology of influencing the customer. 'Sindhi merchants' rightly said an Englishman, know how to "hypnotise the customers".